Have you ever think that how English grammar really works? It is easy to neglect the detail of grammar makeup and carry on with our reading. For those who teach English as a second language often struggle with teaching the structure of grammar. Often, students from non-English speaking countries manage quite well with the structure of English grammar; majority are handicapped with English speaking skill. The best way for teachers who teach English as a second language is to revise through all the basic grammar before they teach English to the students who learn English as a second language. Here are some lessons that could help you. (attention: with Chinese translation as well).
Lesson 1 – Nouns
‘A noun is a naming word, It is the name of a person, animal, place , thing, or feeling.’ ~ Linda, dog, mountain, hammer happiness~
1. Louise collected the parcel. Louise – noun
2.My dog Spot sleeps in the kennel. do Spot, kennel – noun
- The river flowed quickly to the sea. ~~ river, sea 是名词(noun)
- *Her happiness was overwhelming. ~~ happiness 是名词
‘Nouns can be singular, one or plural, more than one. Nouns have different ways of changing to the plural form.’ ‘名词可以是单数或复数’
Noun （名词）： singular (单数）（example）：boy, man, lady, tomato, knife, sheep
Plural (复数）（example）：boys, men, ladies, tomatoes, knives, sheep
Nouns can be divided into four groups (4种名词）：
1。 Proper nouns (专有名词) – name a particular person or place and begin with a capital letter – Saturday, Jason, Australia
2. Common nouns (普通名词) – names common to all people or things of the same kind – woman, boy, tree
3. Collective nouns (集体名词) – name a collection of people or things – team, pack, group, crowd, navy….
4. Abstract nouns (抽象名词) – name feelings and ideas – pain, freedom, joy, sorrow…..
1. Mum and Dad, Clare and Hugh, went for a drive to Campbelltown, and outer suburb of Virginia.
2. They were looking for a breeder who sold Border collie pups.
3. Clare and Hugh could hardly contain their excitement as the city gave way to larger blocks.
Singular （单数）：baby, mouse, wolf, half, knife, loaf
Jobs （职位）that people do are nouns (名词）. Write the names of six jobs that you know.
Proper nouns (专有名词）?
~answer: Jay(名字），Simba （名字）, February （二月）, Zimbabwe （津巴布韦）
Collective nouns (集体名词)？
~ answer: herd （一群）, team （团队）, army （军队）
Common nouns (普通名词)?
~answer: elephant (大象）, bottle （瓶子）, glue （胶水）, dog, cloud （云）, pencil
A set of Common nouns (普通名词) and their matching collective nouns (集体名词):
1. A pride of lions (一群狮子用‘pride’ ） 2. A bunch of flowers （一束鲜花） 3. An army of soldiers （一群士兵用 ’army’） 4. A stack of wood （一堆栈木）
Noun Groups (名词组) is a group of words including a noun (名词）that describes (描述) a person, place or thing. A noun group （名词组）can include (包括）adjectives (形容词), clauses (条文) or a number of linked nouns (名词链接). To find a noun group (名词组) in a sentence (句子) ask (问） the questions （问题） – Who is involve? 涉及到谁？What things, ideas or events are involved?涉及到什么东西，想法或事件？Some examples (例子) of noun groups （名词组）:
1. What has been painted? The house across the road has been painted (noun group (名词组）: The house across the road)
2。 What is brand new? The car that I have is brand new.
(noun group （名词组）: The car that I have)
Creating （创作）descriptive noun groups （描述性的名词组） is an important （重要） part （部分）of good （良好）writing （写作）. In narratives (叙述), noun groups describe （描述）the characters （人物）and the setting （布景）to make them specific （具体）to the story.
Narratives (叙述) ：
- The tired, listless boy (noun group) looked down at his crumpled, dirty shirt (ng) and groaned. How could he go and see the School Principal Mr Henkle (ng) looking like this? 疲惫，无精打采的男孩呻吟的低头看了看自己皱巴巴，脏衬衫。怎么能去见的亨克尔校长？
- Peter thought of Mr Henkle sitting in his spotlessly clean and organised office (spotless clean and organised office=noun group 名词组).
- He was probably sitting there right now thinking up Peter’s ultimate punishment (Peter’s ultimate punishment=noun group).
In factual writing (实际写作) – reports (报告), recounts, procedures (程序), explanations (解释), expositions (论述) and arguments (争论) – noun groups are also to create strong images.
Factual writing (事实写作):
Example: The SMALL GREEN FROG （绿色小青蛙）, living in QUEENSLAND’S EVER-DIMINISHING RAINFORESTS （生活在昆士兰州的热带雨林里）, is under THE THREAT OF EXTINCTION （面临灭绝的威胁）. 生活在昆士兰州的热带雨林里的绿色小青蛙面临灭绝的威胁。
Underline the noun groups in the sentences.
(a)The crates of animals were loaded aboard.
(b)The skiff with the torn sail limped into the harbour.
(c)Many of the books which I owned have been given away.
(d)Some very rich desserts were served.
(e)The bird in the huge nest was an eagle.
Add noun groups to these sentences.
(a)__________were waiting at the gate.
(b)______appeared from over the hill.
(c) _______were seen by the children.
1. The boys in red shirts (ng) are the winning group (红色衬衫的男生是获胜组)
2. Several athletic dancers (ng) were drunk last night (几个运动的舞者昨晚喝醉了)
3. A large, overhanging branch (ng) was being cut off yesterday by the gardener (一个特大悬垂分支昨天已被园丁切断。
Short description about a dog with noun groups
~ A black dog with a funny face (ng) walked past my window yesterday.
~ A red colour name tag (ng) was hanging down his neck.
~Many people on the street (ng) patted him.
1. The large, hairy （毛茸茸）dog with big teeth (ng) leapt （跃）at me. (那个又大又毛茸茸大齿狗跃我上来）
2。 There’s a huge, green, slobbering（流口水） monster (ng) running after me. (有一个巨大的，绿色的，极饿的怪物在追着我）
~~ ng means noun group
Walker, P., 1996. Pascal’s Basic Primary grammar – A concise guide to modern grammar. NSW, Australia: Copyright Agency Limited